Honda Environmental E-learning

~1.Climate Change Issue~

1Awareness of
Environmental Issues

Greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun,
playing a significant role in keeping the temperature
on Earth stable. But, if GHG concentrations continue
to increase in the atmosphere, they trigger climate change.

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Q1
What do you call the phenomenon in which temperatures on the Earth's surface rise because of a higher concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere?
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Q1

The Correct
answer is “Global warming”.

GHGs are necessary for our survival. But if we consume a lot of oil and other fossil fuels, GHGs such as carbon dioxide (CO2) increase too much. This intensifies the greenhouse effect and increases temperatures on the Earth's surface. This phenomenon is called global warming.

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Q2
Which of the following is NOT caused by global warming?
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Q2

The Correct
answer is “Ozone layer depletion”.

Impacts of global warming can be seen all over the globe. It causes glaciers to melt, raising sea levels, and as a result, animals living in coastal areas will lose their homes. Food shortages result from the lack of rain, which causes drought; without water, farmers can’t raise crops. Changing habitats and food shortages affect ecosystems, and can even lead to ecosystem destruction.

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Q3
Countries all over the world have adopted the COP21 Paris Agreement, with the goal of halting global warming. To what degrees, in ℃*, does the Paris Agreement seek to limit the average increase in temperature?*Compared with pre-industrial levels
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Q3

The Correct
answer is “2℃”.

The Paris Agreement was adopted at the 2015 COP21, convened in France, as a worldwide effort to deal with the problem of global warming. The Agreement seeks to limit the average increase in temperature to 2℃*, and strives for a reduction to 1.5℃. This long-term goal was agreed to by countries around the world, who have now begun efforts to meet it.*Compared with pre-industrial levels

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Q4
China and which country are the world's top two CO2 emitters?
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Q4

The Correct
answer is “United States”.

■CO2 emissions by country (2014)

*Emissions labeled in million tons

Source:International Energy Agency (IEA)
(https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/co2-emissions-from-fuel-combustion-highlights-2016.html)

As of 2014, global CO2 emissions were approximately 32.3 billion tons. Ranking emissions by country, China has been on the rise in recent years, and in 2009 became the largest emitter. The US had the most emissions in 2001, but as of 2009 is second to China. In 2013, Japan was fifth on the list.

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Q5
What is the maximum increase in global average temperature by 2100, if the world maintains a high economic growth rate and continues to consume a large amount of fossil fuels?
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Q6
What is the average projected future increase in global mean temperature if the world community is able to continue making its greatest efforts to prevent climate change?
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Q6

The Correct
answer is “1.0℃”.

Projections from the IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report “RCP (representative concentration pathways) Scenario”

Scenarios (projections) Mean (℃) Likely range (℃)
RCP 2.6 Lower stabilization scenario
A scenario centered on the lowest level of emissions with an aim to keep the increase in temperature below 2℃
+1.0 +0.3~+1.7
RCP 4.5 Middle stabilization scenario +1.8 +1.1~+2.6
RCP 6.0 Upper stabilization scenario +2.2 +1.4~+3.1
RCP 8.5 Upper reference scenario
A scenario in line with the maximum amount of GHG emissions projected in the year 2100
+3.7 +2.6~+4.8

*This scenario is based on a path which leads to a future of stabilized GHG emission levels. It assumes that GHG emission mitigation policies have been enacted.

Source: IPCC Working Group I Contribution to AR5 “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis” (http://www.climatechange2013.org/)

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Q7
Which of the following technologies is gaining attention as a measure to curb an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere?
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Q7

The Correct
answer is “Technology to capture and store carbon”.

Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage

A technology gaining attention as a measure to curb an increase in CO2 is a carbon capture and storage (CCS) method. This technology is designed to artificially collect carbon emitted in the atmosphere, or CO2 that is about to be emitted to the atmosphere, and trap it underground or under water. Efforts for commercialization and field trials of this technology are now progressing in the world. However, there are limits to how much CO2 CCS methods can store, and CO2 may reemerge in the future, so this is not a definitive solution. Even while we ramp up the development of energy saving or new energy technologies as much as possible, we must also rethink how we live our carbon-intensive lives.

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Q8
What kind of energy is attracting attention as an alternative to nuclear energy and has low CO2 emissions?
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Q9
Which of the following energy sources is NOT renewable?
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Q9

The Correct
answer is “Lightning”.

Renewable energy sources are attracting attention as energy sources with less CO2 emissions. Renewable energy is continually replenished by nature. These energy sources do not diminish with use and thus will not run out. Renewable energy sources include solar power, wind power, hydro power, geothermal power, and biomass. Biomass fuel is a fuel produced from processed organic matter. Because the plants and other organic materials it uses as a raw material utilize CO2 when they grow, the CO2 that is released when biomass is burned is not counted.

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Q10
Which country had the largest capacity for solar power (photovoltaic) generation at the end of 2014?
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Q10

The Correct
answer is “Germany”.

■Global cumulative solar installations (end of 2014)

Source:Japan Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, “Energy White Paper 2016 ”
(http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/en/category/whitepaper/pdf/whitepaper_2016.pdf)

At the end of 2014, the global total wattage from solar panels installations was 177 million kW. Germany represents the greatest portion, with 38.25 million kW, followed by China with 28.33 million kW. Honda continues to install solar panels at our facilities.

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