Reseach on Human Walking
The robot's walk is modeled on a human being's

In studying the fundamental principles of two-legged walking, Honda researched both human and other forms of walking, performed numerous experiments and collected an immense amount of data. Based on this research, Honda established fast-walking technology just like a human's.
1. Leg Joint Placement
technology 1. The human skeleton was used for reference when locating the leg joints. Regarding the toes' influence on the walking function, it became clear that the location where the toes were attached and the where the heel joint was positioned were very important in determining how the robot's weight was supported. Contact sensations from the surface come from the foot joints. Because the foot joints turn from front to back, and left to right, there is stability in the longitudinal direction during normal walking, and feel for surface variations in the lateral direction is enhanced when traversing a slope at an angle. The knee joint and hip joint are needed for climbing and descending stairs, as well as for straddling. The robot system was given many joint functions such as hip joints, knee joints and foot joints.
2. Range of Joint Movement
Regarding the range of joint movement during walking, research was carried out on human walking on flat ground and on stairs. Joint movements were measured, and this determined the range of movement for each joint.
3. Leg Dimensions, Weight & Center of Gravity Location
To determine the location of each leg's center of gravity, the human body's center of gravity was used for reference.
4. Torque Exerted on Leg Joints While Walking
To determine the ideal torque exerted on the joints while walking, the vectors at the joints during human walking and during occasional floor reaction were measured.
5. Sensors For Walking
Human beings have the following three senses of balance:

· Speed sensed by the otolith of the inner ear
· Angular speed sensed by the semicircular canals
· Deep sensations from the muscles and skin, which sense the operating angle of the joints, angular speed, muscle power, pressure on the soles of the feet, and skin sensations

To "comprehend" the foot's movement during walking, the robot system is equipped with a joint angle sensor, a 6-axis force sensor, and a speed sensor and gyroscope to determine position.
6. Impact Force During Walking
Human beings have structural elements such as soft skin and heels, as well as arch structures consisting of toe joints. These combine with moveable parts which absorb bending impacts to the joints when the foot contacts the ground, softening the impact force.
Experiments and analyses of human walking have shown that when walking speed increases, floor reaction increases even when the impact reduction functions are at work. At walking speeds of 2 - 4km/h, the impact is 1.2 - 1.4 times body weight; at 8km/h, the load increases to 1.8 times body weight.
With the robot, impact-absorbing material on the soles of the feet and compliance controls are used to reduce the impact.
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